Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a plant indigenous to some parts of Asia. There is some evidence that the leaves collected in April 1967 also contain the corresponding C(9)-H epiallo open E ring alkaloids. Meanwhile, higher dose of 21 to 50 grams the plant's leaves bring sedative-like effects; making its user resistant to emotional and physical pain, be in pleasurable feeling, feel and look calm, and have pleasant daydreaming.

Kapp FG, Maurer HH, Auwater V, Hermanns- Clausen M. Intrahepatic cholestasis following abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). Arndt, T., Claussen, U., Güssregen, B. et al. (2011), ‘Kratom alkaloids and -desmethyltramadol in urine of a "Krypton" herbal mixture consumer', Forensic mitra science International, Volume 208, pp. 47-52.

Philipp, A. A., Wissenbach, D. K., Zoerntlein, S. W. et al. (2009), ‘Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry', Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Volume 44, pp. 1249-1261.

Kaewklum, S., Kaewklum, M., Pootrakronchai, R. et al. (2005), ‘Detection of mitragynine and its metabolite in urine following ingestion of leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth', in Schänzer,W., Geyer, H., Gotzmann, A. and Mareck, U. (eds.), Recent Advances in Doping Analysis (13).

Mitragyna speciosa use in the northern states of Malaysia. Lydecker AG, Sharma A, McCurdy CR, Avery BA, Babu KM, Boyer EW. Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine. In the 1990s and 2000s, Takayama and co-workers studied the biological activities of crude M. speciosa extracts, mitragynine, 7-hydroxymintragynine, and several mitragynine derivatives.
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