Biak-Biak, Cratom, Gratom, Ithang, Kakuam, Katawn, Kedemba, Ketum, Krathom, Kraton, Kratum, Madat, Maeng Da Leaf, Mambog, Mitragyna speciosa, Mitragynine Extract, Nauclea, Nauclea speciosa, Thang, Thom. Kratom taken in large, sedating doses corresponding to 10-25 g of dried leaves may initially produce sweating, dizziness, nausea and dysphoria but these effects are shortly superseded with calmness, euphoria and a dreamlike state that last for up to six hours.

The results from the review of scientific literature and online sources were comprehensively integrated and summarized in the following three main subsections: (i) preclinical data about pharmacology and identification of kratom constituents; (ii) kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia; (iii) kratom use in humans in Western countries.

Philipp, A. A., Wissenbach, D. K., Weber, A. A., Zapp, J., and Maurer, H. H. (2011), ‘Metabolism studies of the kratom Seeds alkaloids mitraciliatine and isopaynantheine, diastereomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry', Journal of Chromatography B, Volume 879, pp. 1049-1055.

In the evenings, men use kratom as a drink when they relax and socialise (Saingam et al., 2012 ). In villages, kratom is also served as a drink to male guests during social gatherings (Saingam et al., 2012 ; Tanguay, 2011 ). It serves as a substitute for alcohol among Muslims in Malaysia and South Thailand because alcohol consumption is against Islamic teachings (Tanguay, 2011 ; Tungtananuwat & Lawanprasert, 2010 ). Because kratom users are not considered to be alcohol users, they are free from the social stigma attached to those consuming alcohol (Saingam et al., 2012 ). Kratom has also earned a place in some village religious ceremonies where it is offered to a god or spirit as a precious gift for fulfilling their desires or vows (Saingam et al., 2012 ).

In Thailand, the tree and leaf-preparations from it are called kratom. Part V. The anatomy of the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth', Planta Medica, Volume 13, pp. 280-290. The leaves of this magical tree are rich in alkaloids mitragynine and 7-Hydroxymiytagynine which interact with opioid receptors in your brain to produce sedation, pleasure and decreased pain among others.
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